What Is Annotated Bibliography – What Does it Serve?

Let’s start with parts, defining and explaining what each term means.

Bibliography

Bibliography – Often called a “list of works cited” or “list of references”, the bibliography is a list, usually found at the end of the work, which displays all the sources used in your work. In this list, you can have websites, books, newspapers, magazines or other types of sources.

Annotated Bibliography – Also known as Annotated Bibliography, is a list of citations from books, articles, and documents that you used to search for your topic. Each citation, or source in the list, is followed by a brief descriptive and evaluative paragraph (four to five sentences, usually about 150 words), which may also include its relevance to the topic. This paragraph corresponds to the annotation. The aim of the annotation is to inform the reader of the relevance, accuracy and quality of the cited sources. It should provide a clear indication of the relevance, accuracy, and quality of each source.

Almost all academic papers require you to validate the information provided and its sources. This task is done through direct and indirect citations. Each listed source, also called a “citation”, shares information about the author, title, year of publication, and other items. Citations are provided so that others can find the sources by themselves if they want to research more about the subject.

It may happen that your teacher asks you to include an annotated bibliography. This type of bibliography includes three items for each source:

The quote

A brief summary of the source

Your personal thoughts and understanding about information

Annotations Versus Summaries

The abstract is a purely descriptive condensation, often found at the beginning of scholarly articles or periodic indexes.

The annotations are descriptive and critical. They can describe the author’s point of view, authority, or clarity and appropriateness of expression.

How to Make Annotated Bibliography

How you will build your annotated bibliography will depend on the policy you are applying for. Your teacher should tell you whether you should use the ABNT, APA, MLA or other style.

Initial Process:

The creation of an annotated bibliography requires the application of a series of intellectual abilities: concise exposition, succinct analysis and informed research.

First, locate and record quotes from books, journals, and documents that may contain useful information and ideas about your topic. Briefly review and review items of interest. Then choose the papers that provide a variety of perspectives on your topic.

Cite the book, article, or document using the appropriate style.

Write a concise note that summarizes the central theme and scope of the book or article. Include one or more sentences that:

assess the author’s authority or experience

comment the audience

compare or contrast this work with another you cited, or

your topic of bibliography

Steps:

Create the quote in the requested style

Write a few sentences summarizing the source. What does it mean? What was the main point?

Was the source useful for your specific case? How did she help answer your research questions? How was this font different from the other fonts used? Has the source changed your thinking about the research topic? How did the source affect you?

Structure:

Respect the formatting of the citation according to the regulations (author’s last name, work name, date, page, etc.)

Citations are listed alphabetically – Format your work according to the guidelines. If there is no mandatory organization, you can order in several ways:

  • Alphabetically
  • Chronologically (date of publication or time when the subject was discussed, etc.)
  • By format (book, article, website, etc.)
  • By subtopic
  • By language

Remember if:

Summary / Description – provides a concise overview of the main arguments, evidence presented and conclusions

Critique / evaluation – in addition to providing an overview, it analyzes the content; comments on the strengths and weaknesses of the arguments, evidence and conclusions; explains the usefulness of the source for your research topic.

Combination – Most bibliographic work requires you to include an overview and evaluative comments.

General orientations

Carefully read the instructions given by your teacher. If you still have questions, check with your teacher about the type of annotated bibliography that is required. Always follow the rules of the style guide (ABNT, APA, MLA, Chicago, etc.) that is indicated in the course assignment instructions; The style guide will detail what information should be included for each font type and how it should be formatted.

Examples of Annotated Bibliography

Descriptive type summary (in APA style)

Sampson, R.J., Raudenbush, S.W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crimes: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277, 918-924.

Analysis of the data collected by the Chicago Neighborhoods Human Development Project indicates that, while racial and socioeconomic inequalities are relevant factors, they are not the singular or primary influences on neighborhood crime. The findings suggest that violence in the neighborhood is predicted by measures of informal social control, social cohesion, and confidence and perceptions of violence. Consistent with the social organization model, collective effectiveness is shown to mediate the influence of residential stability on predicting neighborhood violence.

Note: The above example is taken from:

Brossoie, N., Graham, B., & Lee, S. (2005). Families and communities: an annotated bibliography. Family Relations: Interdisciplinary Journal of Applied Family Studies, 54 (5), 666-675. Doi: 10.1111 / j.1741-3729.2005.00350.x

Example for a magazine article

This example uses the APA style for the journal citation:

Waite, L.J., Goldschneider, F.K., & Witsberger, C. (1986). Unfamiliar life and erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults. American Sociological Review, 51, 541-554.

Authors, researchers from the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women to test the hypothesis that the unfamiliar life of young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans and expectations away from their beliefs in traditional sexual roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young women, while the effects were smaller in studies of young males. Increase time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier Williams study cited below does not show significant gender differences in sexual role attitudes as a result of unfamiliar life.

This example uses the MLA style for the journal citation:

Waite, Linda J., et al. “Unfamiliar life and erosion of traditional family orientations among young adults.” American Sociological Review, vol. 51, no. 4, 1986, pp. 541-554.

Authors, researchers from the Rand Corporation and Brown University, use data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Young Women to test the hypothesis that the unfamiliar life of young adults alters their attitudes, values, plans and expectations away from their beliefs in traditional sexual roles. They find their hypothesis strongly supported in young women, while the effects were smaller in studies of young males. Increase time away from parents before marrying increased individualism, self-sufficiency, and changes in attitudes about families. In contrast, an earlier Williams study cited below does not show significant gender differences in sexual role attitudes as a result of unfamiliar life.

Do not Forget References

Each time you quote or refer to another person’s work in your role, you must identify the source with a reference number. These numbers appear in the list of references consecutively, in the same order as they appear in the text. Once a source is mentioned, the same number is used in all subsequent references. No distinction is made between printed reference and electronic reference when quoting within the text.

Example:

The reference number is overwritten after the end point if it is at the end of a sentence or after a comma if it is in the middle of a sentence. If you are citing the same source again, use the same reference number – “This was demonstrated by Smith,” but not by Jones. ² “